ESCHATOLOGY-THE STUDY OF END TIMES
Course Study By: Dr. Grady
Text: Things To Come: I have chosen some very influential writers to complete my study concerning the end time. When you see the words this writer, well that is Dr Grady saying to you what I have determined, and what I have learned from the bible. The authors at the bottom of this study are references of my study.
Discussing the allegorical and literal methods of interpretation of scripture giving reasons of my study results.
The biblical interpretation of the Bible by the early church was presented by the allegorical method. The allegorical method views that the literal statements of scripture do not present the intended meanings and the literal views of Scripture are vehicles through which a spiritual truth is to be understood. Some people deny the literal statements and pay little attention to the importance of these statements.
The Christian should not use the allegorical method of interpretation. It is not a proper method of interpretation. The method certainly expounds on the human mind, not saying what the Scripture says, means and how it applies. The Holy Spirit allows the Scripture to be understood through a true literal view. The Bible tells us that Jesus walked on water; this writer believes He did walk on water, nothing more or nothing less. Either the Red Sea opened and the Jews walked across on dry land or they did not.
Some state that the literal method of interpretation rejects the idea of spiritual meanings of receiving each word in its literal sense. The literal method also presents the grammatical-history method, which refers to the attention given by the interpreter in the placement of history of the people, places, and events, and the attention given in understanding the language and grammatical usage presented by the author.
Literal interpretation is simply the Godly presented fact rather than mans’ own interpretation. The literal interpretation provides for Spiritual and standardization of interpretation. Strong Christians are those who have taken the Scripture as God presents the Scripture. In conclusion this writer believes in the literal method of interpretation. An in depth study by this writer in Typology, presented types, which are symbolic illustrations, and are simply directions leading to a literal ultimate understanding. This writer believes that the Scripture is to be taken literal and at the same time presenting the Gospel of Jesus Christ, thus, the main reason of understanding Scripture in a correct manner.
Discussing the history of interpretation, detailing what I believe to be the most significant events, whether good or bad, in the history of interpretation.
Scriptural interpretation can trace its beginnings back to the time of Ezra and Nehemiah. When the books of Scripture were recovered, in order for the people to understand and utilize them in their lives, it was imperative that explanations of the books be given. It was at that time a tradition of rabbinical interpretation developed. This Jewish interpretation was a strict literalism.
By no surprise this literal methodology was adopted by Jesus and the apostles. Jesus used the methodology of literalism, but did not acknowledge the rabbinical excesses in interpretation. His could be seen as the purist method, one that the apostles after Him used in their writing and teaching. The method this writer uses today.
After the apostolic age, the church Fathers developed several different types of interpretation. The literal or realistic school of interpretation has been linked to Tertullian. The historical and grammatical method sometimes seems a separate school and it flourished among the Christians. Allegorical schools are often linked with the Origen. In attempting to reconcile the Scripture to the writing of Greek philosophers, allegorical methods proved helpful.
As the church grew to have greater and greater authority, this authority expressed itself against Scripture itself. The teachings of the church took on authority greater than the Scriptures. This was promoted by allegoricalism. Romanism and its suppression of thought were another example of allegorical interpretation of the Scripture. Literal methodology of man built the Reformation. The reformers believed that each man should not only read Scripture, but also that he should interpret it. Reformers were proponents of literalism. John Calvin and Martin Luther were served as examples of this method. After the Reformation, many built on the foundation, which had been laid and began to study and interpret Scripture based on the methodology of the reformers. Allegorical interpretation once again begins to surface with the coming of modern liberalism. A millennialism is one example of the fruit of such interpretation. Another manifestation of this is teaching that Scripture is errant.
Considering and discussing proper procedures of study.
Several items are considered when interpreting words. The original meaning should be accepted unless there is some significant reason to abandon it. Some words have more than one meaning so care must be take to use the meaning that is consistent with the context. Etymology of words should be considered, and care given to interpretation of names or titles.
The interpreter should exercise care with closely related words, synonyms, as to their meanings. Exercising extreme care is needed when examining parallel texts, context, and general subject matter. The simplest sense of the word should be the preference. Meaning of the text should not be read into it. True interpretations should be consistent and meaning contrary to logic should be rejected.
The correct interpretation of passage depends of the preceding and following passage. This context determines whether a passage is literal of figurative. True context includes the entire book or any variation of paragraphs, sections, or chapters.
Close examination of each word and close attention to the entire passage are necessary to interpret correctly. Each verse or passage must be related to their close context and not to distant passages. Transitions require special attention so that the interpreter does not assume a new topic is being discussed. Each interpretation must suit the context, and if no connections exist between a verse and its immediate context, the interpreter should not manufacture one.
Grammatical context allows an understanding of the original language. The authors of Scripture wrote within the use of the language for the understanding of the people of that time. Grammatical interpretation and historical interpretation are very closely related. The circumstances of the author as well as his audience should be considered. Grammatical interpretation requires the interpreter to read the passage the way the author intended it and as the recipient would have understood it. The correct interpretation would require the understanding of the history of the time to understand the grammar of that time. Geographic location, nationally of the author and of the audience and time in history are all necessary for an accurate interpretation.
Figurative language is common to all languages. It can adorn common language
or convey meaning beyond literal language. The interpreter must first determine whether
the language is literal or figurative.
When a literal sense explains the passage, it should be accepted. When a literal sense is illogical or absurd, then a figurative meaning can be assumed. Once the figurative usage has been determined, the usage must now be compared with reality. The use of parallel passages can sometimes be helpful when determining figurative meanings. The figurative interpretation should be kept as literal as possible. Figurative interpretations should be consistent with doctrinal teachings, no matter how plain and clear.
Discussing TIME, DOUBLE REFERENCE, AND CONDITIONAL PROPHECY
The eastern mind did not place as much significance on time and chronology as the modern Christians. When the subject is prophecy, this fact increases the difficulty of interpretation. Ancient writers wrote prophecy speaking about future things as if they were occurring in present time. These writings also express future events as having already occurred.
The Jewish teachers of Jesus’ time failed to understand the Messiah because of this chronology of prophecy. The teachers saw a suffering servant while looking for a king. The book of Isaiah is an example of the characteristic of prophecy. As Isaiah addressed the situation of his day, the passage could also reference events years in the future. This is a clear example of a single prophecy having a double meaning. This prophecy could be fulfilled in the day of the writer as well as a spiritual fulfillment in the present day.
The accepting prophecy to have double meaning causes some people to deny God’s plan. The prophecy must be for the time of the author or for present time, either spiritualizing or literally fulfilled. Some interpreters see the partial fulfillment, as acknowledging there will be a total fulfillment someday, according to God’s plan.
Some prophecy can be interpreted as conditional; the behavior of the generation receiving the prophecy determines the fulfillment. Scripture gives us examples throughout the Old Testament. God delayed judgment against Nineveh following Jonah’s prophecy, the people repented. The years in the wilderness gives many examples of God blessing and delaying blessings to the Children of Israel. God used Hosea to warn the people of his day that they were committing adultery toward God. Hosea warned that God would chastise the people if they would not change, God’s chosen people did change and God held back his judgment.
Not all prophecy is conditional. The interpreter must be careful not to imply conditions when God has not included them. Some prophecy is unconditional meaning they will be fulfilled. The time of fulfillment is not always given and will be revealed depending on the behavior of the people.
Discussing THE ABRAHAMIC COVENANT
This writer feels the Abrahamic Covenant is the most important since it encompasses all of the other covenants. The permanent restoration of the land to God’s people is in the Palestinian Covenant. The establishment of a nation and who will rule the nation is the Davidic Covenant. The New Covenant is the redemption of God’s people is in the blessings He has for them.
The Abrahamic Covenant has a significant bearing on the study of eschatology. This Covenant has partial fulfillment in the nation of Israel. When Christ returns the Covenant will be completed. The Covenant covers promises to Abraham and his seed as well as the gentile people.
God promised Abraham his name would be great and according to Genesis 12:2, this has been fulfilled. God promised Abraham to be great nation in Genesis 12:2, this has been fulfilled in both Isaac and Ishmael. In Genesis 12:3, God promised Abraham that through him all people on earth would be blessed. Through the descendants of Abraham God sent His Son, Jesus, to fulfill the prophecy to the children of Israel.
In reading Genesis 13:14, 15, one can see the promise of God to Abraham of the land of Palestine as an inheritance. History shows that Abraham occupied the land, while his descendants have not had full possession of this land. This final fulfillment and total possession will come to pass with Jesus’ kingdom on earth. In Genesis 13:16, God promises Abraham his seed will be as the dust of the earth, to numerous to count. This writer believes this to be the spiritual descendants of Abraham. The secular world has a numerical figure to represent the Christians in the world today, but taking into consideration the history of the time of Abraham, this number would have been “as the dust of the earth”.
God promises Abraham he would be the father of many nations in Genesis 17:4. In a physical sense he is the father of Israel, Judah, and the Ishmaelite nations; spiritually, all people, Jews and Gentiles are descendants of Abraham. God made a covenant with Abraham in Genesis 17:7, and everlasting covenant with him and all his descendants throughout all their generations. God has kept His promise, when the children of Israel have been obedient and faithful, blessings were abundant. Because of their lack of obedience many have felt God abandoned them, but he has never allowed them to be destroyed everlasting. The work of Christ changed the abandoned feelings in the Old Testament times; to believing in the New Testament times that Christ does not abandoned a dirty house.
The Holy Spirit will indwell the people and teach them. The Holy Spirit will make the Will of God known to all who are willing to obey. Most important, all the blessings of this covenant shall be based on the blood of Jesus Christ. Revelation reveals this covenant will be until the end of time on earth, and forever.
Biblical history shows that the Abrahamic Covenant has been conditional and unconditional. God, even today, continues to fulfill this covenant. The spiritual descendants of Abraham, when obeying the Will of God, received blessings daily from the covenant. While, on the other hand, the disobedient seed feel God has abandoned them and broken the covenant. The covenant is mentioned many times in the New Testament with reference to Abraham, the law, and Second Advent.
The Abrahamic Covenant is a spiritual covenant not one of the flesh. Keeping that as the most important element, one can understand that Abraham had no direct control as to the terms of the covenant. God was and is the director and controller of the covenant He made with Abraham and therefore the limitations and ultimate fulfillment of the covenant is God’s.
Discussing the New Covenant, its importance, its provisions, its character, its fulfillment, and its eschatological implications.
The New Covenant, God’s plan for Israel, promises a change in the heart of the people. This covenant places the people in the land with hearts that are truly obedient to God. The New Covenant is with the physical descendants of Abraham and Israel as a nation. This covenant is unconditional and based on the Will of God. This covenant promises renewed hearts and minds of the people and will be seen as regeneration of life of the church-age believer.
God promises blessings to his covenant people and to no longer remember their sins. He has promised war will cease, and like all the other covenants, it will be everlasting. The Holy Spirit will dwell indwell the people and teach them. The Holy Spirit will make the will of God known to all who are willing to obey. Most important, all the blessings of this covenant shall be based on the blood of Jesus Christ.
This covenant is not based on conditional promises; instead it is on the will and promise of God. This covenant deals with salvation of the people and provides them with a regenerated heart. A partial fulfillment of the Abrahamic Covenant promises is also in the New Covenant.
Amillennialists see the fulfillment as in the past or present. They assume it to be the church. Because of their outward annulment of the laws, the Jews have forfeited their right to the promises of the New Covenant.
Premillennialists have a more literal view. The promises of covenant were given to the Jewish people through Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Others see the covenant as unconditional and will be literally fulfilled with the persons to whom it was made. This brings about eschatological implications.
The nation of Israel must be restored and posses the promise land of Palestine. The restored nation must have national conversation and regeneration. The nation must have a leader that is of God, The Messiah. There must be peace among the people of the land. The New Covenant holds all these things to be of a future date, and directly associated with the second coming of Jesus Christ.
Discussing the present age prophecy and the difference between covenant and dispensation theology concerning the present age giving my defense for my stand.
Covenant with and for God’s people are discussed throughout the Old Testament. His people rejected many of the covenant then and even in the New Testament times by rejecting Christ. The rejection led to God’s people being set aside for later time. The space of time between the rejection by His people and the return of the Messiah is the present. The space of time referred to as present, is not mentioned as such in the Old Testament that is why Paul mentions the church as something God did not reveal in earlier time, but has chosen to bring to pass.
The church is predominantly gentile and therefore not part of any of the covenants of the Old Testament. This is called dispensational discussion. God divided the people into two time periods with each having a different purpose. God had His church age people in mind even though they are not seen in Old Testament reference; His purpose for this age is different than His plans for Israel and the Jews.
With the rejection and disobedience of the Jews as to the Covenants of God, God will deal with them differently. This writer sees the fulfillment of the four covenants as revealed in Revelation. God will deal with His people. The restoration of a nation of Jews in Palestine is seen as impossible historically and has no eschatological significance.
The rebirth of Israel as the fulfillment of the covenant is not believed since the nation is essentially a secular state. This is a dispensational belief. The coming of the Messiah and judgment of all the Jews will be the fulfillment of the covenant.
Discussing The Rapture
There is probably no topic in eschatology more debated than the rapture. It is, therefore, important that you understand the terms and various rapture positions.
Summarizing, the partial rapture theory, the rapture theory, and the pre-tribulational rapture theory.
The writer was taught in Theology that the theories concerning rapture are the result of different views among those who hold to the premillennial theory. The postmilliennalism and amillennialism view no rapture since there is no tribulation as a definite setting. The postmillennial belief holds Jesus coming back at the end of a period of peace created by the church. The tribulation is viewed as the persecution of the church of all ages. Presented in amillennialism, the millennium and the tribulation are spiritualized and Jesus comes to end this time.
The partial rapture theory is that the rapture is a reward for those who are faithful and spiritual at the coming of Christ. The partial rapture divides the church into two groups, the spiritual group and the carnal group. Many who have not reached a certain level of spiritual maturity will be left on the earth to go through the tribulation.
The writer presents several reasons why this cannot be possible. If this is true then Christ died in vain. This belief presents a doctrine of works, certainly not grace. The seven judgments are absolutely out of the question if this view is correct. The Book of Revelation is not true if the Mid Tribulation Theory is accepted. This writer believes the Bible to be absolutely true. This view separates believers; Jesus presented the view in Matt. 6:24, separation is not of the Bible. The partial rapture theory leaves part of the true church in the world during the tribulation.
The post tribulation position holds that the church is raptured, after the tribulation period. This theory views that Christians will suffer through the Tribulation. This view is the result of confusion of the understanding of the difference between Christians and the unsaved. It makes the rapture and the Second Advent happen at the same time. The judgment seat of Christ, and the marriage supper would then await the resurrection of tribulation and Old Testament saints. This is not biblical but rather promised, to the church, the reason Christ died for us, our salvation.
One of the problems for the post-tribulation position is the issue of imminence. The Bible tells us to watch for the return of the Lord, and we will know by the signs. The tribulation cannot happen before the first coming for the Bible then would be incorrect in Jesus’ warning to us. If the church missed the signs then how could the church possibly miss the Tribulation?
The mid-tribulation theory is viewed by many as a compromise between pre- and post-tribulationalism. This fence walker avoids problems with both views by standing in a middle position. This position is now called the pre-wrath rapture position. This view is the belief that the church will go through the first half of the Tribulation and then be removed before the last three and one-half years of the Tribulation. The Book of Revelation tells us exactly how tribulation intensifies and is not written as separate event but an increasing sorrow, especially the last three and one-half years.
Pre-tribulation theory places the rapture prior to the beginning of Tribulation. Jesus said that we would know by signs prior to the rapture, so all the warnings to prepare, wait, and be ready at all times is most understandable. This theory depends on a literal interpretation of Scripture. It sees the Tribulation as being set aside for the second, third, fourth, and fifth judgment. This theory separates the church from unbelievers.
This theory allows the first judgment and marriage events between Christ and the believers. This theory separates the rapture and the Second Coming of Christ. The pre-tribulation theory documents the Book of Revelation and the Book of Revelation documents pre-tribulation. This writer is a believer in the theory of pre-tribulation.
Discussing the Rapture
The definition of rapture is a state or experience of being carried away. This English word comes from the Latin word ‘RAPIO’ meaning to seize or snatch. The Rapture of the Church as people know it today is the carrying away of the church from the earth to heaven.1
There are four views of the rapture which derive from eschatology. They are:
The partial rapture view describes rapture just before the tribulation, several during the tribulation (Rev 7:9, 14; 11:2; 12:5; 16:15), and a final rapture at the end of the tribulation. At the close of the Millennium there is another rapture of believers who missed the first ones. The spiritual condition of the believer determines which rapture the believer will be involved in.
The posttribulational view teaches that the rapture occurs with the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the tribulation. This view rests on the concept that the church must go through the tribulation but will be kept safe from its horrors. Revelation 3:10, “I will keep thee from the hour of temptation”, is interpreted as the church being kept safe during the tribulation.
The midtribulational view depends on the concept that the tribulation (the intense trials and judgments of God) is the second half of the seventieth week of Daniel. Since the church is to be safe from God’s judgments, it will be removed just prior to those judgments. The rapture is also taken to be the major event which marks the beginning of God’s judgments on the earth. The Second Coming occurs at the end of the tribulation.
The pretribulation view teaches that the rapture occurs prior to the Daniel’ seventieth week. The protection of the church in Revelation 3:10, is taken to mean that the church will not experience any of the tribulation period. The Second Coming occurs at the end of the tribulation and the beginning of the millennium.2
The Christian lives between the resurrection of Christ and the future coming of Christ. This time is the period of the Spirit and the time of the church. The Spirit is the eschatological gift promised by the prophets in Acts 2:16-18, by which Christians already participate in the eternal life of the age to come.
The process of eschatological fulfillment in the overlap of the ages involves the mission of the church, which fulfils the universalism of the Old Testament hope. The Christian’s life involves suffering. The Christian must share Christ’s sufferings, so that in the age to come they may share his glory as explained in Rev 2:10. The Christian’s hope is focused on the coming of Christ, or the Rapture when He will meet His people in the air and bring them to heaven with Him. There are three passages describing the Rapture: John 14:1-3, 1 Cor 15:50-58, and I Thess 4:13-58.
In the nineteenth century, many questions were raised concerning the teaching of the Rapture of the church. Does the Second Coming of Christ involve several stages? What is the relation of those stages to the Tribulation period? What is the difference of the Church and the People of Israel in God’s program? Eschatology of the twentieth century concerns the time of the Rapture.
The four views of the Rapture are partial, pretribulational Rapture, midtribulational Rapture, and posttribulational Rapture. The Partial Rapture views the extent of the Rapture while the other three views on the time of the Rapture.
The pretribulation rapturism rest up one method and this is the literal method of interpretation of the Scriptures. The church and Israel are two distinct groups with whom God has a divine plan. This mystery program must be completed before God can resume His program with Israel and bring it to completion. The church is mystery, unrevealed in the Old Testament. These considerations all arise from the literal method of interpretation.
Pretribulation teaches that the Rapture of the church will occur before the seven year Tribulation period. It is to be before the seventieth week of Daniel 9:24-27, because some hold the midtribulation Rapture state the Rapture is pretribulational, because of the understanding of the Tribulation to refer only to the last three and one half years of the seven-year period.3
A number of arguments may be presented in support the pretribulation rapture position. While not all of them are of equal weight, the cumulative evidence is strong. The literal method of interpretation is presented by amillennialists that the basic issue is the controversy between premillennialists and themselves is the issue of the method of interpretation to be employed in the interpretation of prophecy.
One must get clearly in mind the nature of the Tribulation, that it is divine wrath and divine judgment. We know that Jesus bore for us the wrath of God and His judgment; therefore we who are in Him shall not come into judgment. The antithesis of 1 Thess 5:9 is conclusive evidence, “For God appointed us not unto wrath, but into the obtaining of salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ.” Wrath for others, but salvation for us that the Rapture, whether we are alive or sleep. The promise of Revelation 3:10, guarantees us being kept from the trials of the Tribulation period, and being kept from the time period of the Tribulation. “I will keep you from the hour of the trail.”4
When the period is being anticipated in Daniel 9, God says to the prophet, “Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city.” This whole period then has special reference to Daniel’s people, Israel, and Jerusalem. In Revelation
reference is viewed as “them that dwell on the earth” and not the church. One presenter writes:
“Now the word “dwell used here (Katoikeo) is a strong word. It is used to describe The fullness of the Godhead that dwelt in Christ (Col. 2.9); it is used of Christ’s taking up a permanent abode in the believer’s heart (Eph 3.17), an of demons returning to take absolute possession of a man (Matt 12.45; Luke 11.26). It is to be distinguished from the word (oikeo), which is the general term for “dwell, “ and (paroikeo), which has the idea “to sojourn,” The term (katoikeo) has the idea of permanence in it. The judgment referred to in Revelation 3:10 is directed against the earth-dwellers of that day, against those who have settled down in the earth as their real home, who identified themselves with the earth’s commerce and religion.5
This period is related to “earth dwellers,” meaning those have settled down to permanent occupancy, it can not reference to the church, which would be subjected to the same experiences. In many passages in the New Testament such as Ephesians 3.1-6 make it clear the church is a mystery and its nature as a body composed of Jew and Gentile alike was not revealed in the Old Testament. The church could not have been in view in this for any other Old Testament prophecy. The church did not have its existence until after the death of Christ (Eph 5.25, 26), until after the resurrection of Christ, until after the ascension (Eph. 1.19, 20), and until after the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. With the inception of all His ministries to the believer, the church could not have been in the first sixty-nine weeks of this prophecy.
Discussing the distinctions between the church and Israel.
The church is composed of those who make a profession of faith in Christ. This profession is based on reality. There are some with a profession based on no Jesus; these will go into the tribulation period. Israel’s belief is based on a physical birth of just a man called Jesus, waiting on Elijah, and all in this group who are not removed by the rapture will be subjected to the wrath of the tribulation. The true church is composed of those who have received Christ as Savior, not just professing to have received. Only the true church will be raptured.
The spiritual Israel was those who were saved prior to Pentecost, when there was no church. After Pentecost and until the rapture there is no spiritual Israel, but only the church. After the rapture, there will once again be a spiritual Israel. The rapture will remove those who have been born-again believers in Jesus Christ.
The difference between the rapture and the Second Advent is the removal of all believers, while the Second Advent entails the appearing of Jesus Christ. The first sees the saints caught up in the air, and in the Second Advent He returns to the earth. The first view is that Christ comes to claim a bride, and the Second Advent He returns with the bride. The first reveals the removal of the church prior to tribulation. The Second Advent results in the establishment of the millennial kingdom. The rapture is imminent, while the Second Advent is preceded by a multitude of signs. The rapture brings a message of quickness. The Second Advent is accompanied by a harsh judgment. The Second Advent is predicted in the Old Testament and the New Testament. At the rapture believers are judged at the marriage table for their crowns, The Second Advent the Gentiles and Israel are judged which totals four judgments.
The rapture is for believers of Jesus Christ. The Second Advent has its judgment on all ages up to that point in time. The crown of the church in regard to the rapture is “the Lord is at hand”, Phil 4.5.,The judgment of Israel will be at the Second Advent, described in the bible as “the kingdom is at hand”, Matt. 24.14. There will be 144,000 taken into the 1000 year reign.
Signs are to be given to the nation of Israel, which would precede the Second Advent. Israel also will not know the day or hour when the Lord will come, but they can know these signs and the word of God.
“At any moment coming,” the doctrine of imminence, it’s not new doctrine and is linked to an “any-moment Rapture.”6 A belief in immanency marked the premillennialism of the early church history. It is possible for the pretribulationalist to reject the idea of ‘any time imminence’ and still hold to the pretribulational rapture. This definition would allow the issue of signs and provide an explanation for the prophecies of the apostolic writers of Scripture.
The signs the midtribulationalist and postribulationalists look for are different from the signs the pretribulationalist look for. “Is the rapture of the Church an event that could have taken place any time after Pentecost when the Church first came into being?7 The pretribulational rapture believers some times emphasize church history ages comparing to the first seven churches. These groups of believers say Jesus could come at any time. This belief of the rapture and upon the tribulational period for seven years represents the present day age church believer in many denominations.
The pretribulation believers’ state there is no event that must happen between now and the rapture of the church. The postribulational view is all events of the tribulation must occur before the Second Advent. The midtribulational view is some things must occur during the rapture and the Second Advent. Scripture maters not, but the present day Theology is their reasoning.
This writer sees the rapture as marked by surprise. The rapture is, an any moment possibility, awaiting no other signs of fulfillment of prophecy. This is the view of the pretribulationalists. The next stages are set by the prophetic Scripture of God. All other fulfillment will come following Christ’s (rapio) snatching up of his church.
Believers are no doubt the church, and take a heavenly position. The result of the tribulation of the professing church prevents the church from being in the world. The only organized church are mentioned in the tribulation period is one world order of satan (Rev. 2.22). If the true church was on earth it must be a part of the tribulation period. (I. Thes 4) states we will be removed in the air.
This writer holds firm to the view taught in Theology II course taken at Seminary, which is the rapture of the church in the air which then brings in the tribulation, then the second coming of Christ with His bride, the judgments the tribulation saints and the Old Testament saints, the millennium, the Great White Throne judgment, then the ultimate – the New Jerusalem.
Discussing the tribulation period.
The Tribulation period begins with an agreement between the Jews and a world leader. The world leader is the Antichrist and the agreement is to allow the Jews to rebuild their temple and begin sacrificing again. The start of the Tribulation begins immediately after the rapture if the church. The Rapture and the agreement with the Antichrist are related in order, but it is not the rapture that begins the Tribulation. In theology we learn that during the Tribulation time on earth, the church will be participating in the judgment seat of Christ, the marriage of the Lamb, the marriage super of the Lamb.
In the Book of Revelation and Daniel we find that there are two parts; the second half is called the Great Tribulation. This division is made not only on the basis of time, but also on the fact that the Antichrist breaks the agreement that began the Tribulation by putting an end to the offering of sacrifices at the temple. The Antichrist violates the sanctity of the new temple by committing an “abomination of desolation.” The second half of the Tribulation will see much tragedy all over the earth. Numerous purposes exist for this time of Tribulation. It is a time of preparation for the nation of Israel of her Messiah. God uses this time of Tribulation to bring the Fathers of the Jews for the Millennium to faith in Christ. All believers of this period will not be Jews. The promised remnant of Jews will become a force to evangelize the world. Many Gentiles will also be saved from all nations, and four judgments will take place during the end of Tribulation.
The Tribulation will also be used to present the wrath that God has held since the time of Adam and Eve’s sin. This judgment will fall on the unbelieving people and nations of the time. Few will turn to God, and many will harden their hearts toward God. They will be the people that attack the church.
Revelation gives some insight as to the believers during tribulation. John saw in his vision thrones, judgment, and those that had been beheaded because of their witness for Christ, those that stood their ground for the Lord, and they lived and reigned with Him a thousand years. He said that the rest of the dead were resurrected after the thousand years. John said that those that would be with Christ are the priests of God and of Christ, and they shall not die the second death.
God told Ezekiel that He would gather the Jews together from wherever they were, to a wilderness where He would plead with them in the same way that He had pleaded with their fathers in the wilderness of Egypt. God is going to purge them of unbelievers. An interpretation of this account would be that the Jews that are living at the end of tribulation will be judged on the basis of their faith, the results of which will be entrance into the kingdom for those that believe.
In the end of the Tribulation Jesus will come, the Second Coming, Jesus will be accompanied with his church. The Second Coming is triggered in response to an attack on Israel. The attackers are prepared to battle with God. Jesus will win this battle and defeat satan. Satan is bound and put away for the period of the kingdom which is 1000 years. Satan is then cast into the lake of fire and the final judgment of believers occurs.
Discussing the gentiles in the tribulation period.
Many of the Gentiles will join the Jews in coming to faith in Jesus Christ during the Tribulation. The Tribulation will be the equal chance for the Gentiles which began with the Jews rejecting God and resulted in captivity. Later the Jews will be restored to their land, but lose their total control spiritually to the Gentiles. All of the world powers since the captivity have been controlled by the gentiles. During the time of the Tribulation, the gentiles’ rulers and nations will combine together and become one against the Jewish nation. The main leader of this gentile combination will be the renewing of the Roman Empire; resulting in one world order.
According to Dr. Van Impe and the study of Revelation, Rome is not without many allied powers, which is called the northern confederacy of nations which will consist of Russia, Germany, Turkey, and Iraq, geological locations. These are then combined to the Asian nations and the Egyptian locations. Presented at the time of the Tribulation is a gentile as leader of this confederacy. Our Bible presents him as the Beast. The beast is a gentile leader from the new Roman Empire. The beast will be the final head of the gentile world power. The beast is a political leader who has eliminated other leaders to rise to his position of power. The beast claims to seek world peace. The beast makes a seven-year covenant with Israel to allow the restoration of their sacrificial worship system, and in the middle of this period, the beast removes the agreement and presents himself to be God. The beast destroys his own false religion.
The beast’s allies turn on him after he has moved his leadership to Jerusalem. The False Prophet is a religious leader and it is understood he is a Jew. The False Prophet is under the authority of the Beast and he directs the world to the idolatrous worship of the
Beast represented as the power of death. The False Prophet is over the entire economic world and he controls and monitors this by giving the “mark of the beast” which says who can take part in economic purchases. The Battle of Armageddon brings all powers to a close. Jesus Christ takes control of the kingdom that the beast attempted to rule and rules here on earth for 1000 years.
Discussing the prophecies of the second coming related to history of different viewed doctrines.
The Second Coming consists of prophecies connected to the return of Christ in the air, the resurrections, and the judgments of the Gentiles and Jews. Presented are the main views of the coming event. The non-literal view, the post-millennial view, the millennial view, and the pre-millennial view are all different views.
The non-literal view refuses the idea that Christ will return to earth. The non-literal believers reject God’s word. They view prophecies of the Second Coming as being presented through a personal experience. The post-millennial theologian views Christ coming back at the end of an age of peace. The amillennial views no millennium at all. This view presents the promises being spiritualized, and they view that they are being fulfilled in the church at the present time. They hold to an imminent rapture with no necessary intervening events occurring. The premillennial view presents that the literal millennium will begin with the reappearance of the Messiah.
The early church fathers generally held to premillennialism. The anti-premillennialism began in the third century. This view can be traced to Origen’s rejection
of literal interpretation. Many problems between Judaism and gentile Christians resulted in a rejection of millenialism because it was received as Jewish.
The time of Constantine and the union of the church and state, the suppression of the writings of the church fathers, the rise in the influence of Augustine, and the teaching that the Catholic Church was the Kingdom of God all led to the death of premillennial belief. The theory which took its place was ammillennial. Augustine rejected all literal fulfillments of biblical promises. The result of Augustine’s rejection of premillennium’s led to its decline. As the post-reformation period progressed, it was apparent that the ammillennial teachings of Augustine were defective. Post-millennial was the belief that it was God’s power that would bring forth the millennium and allow the second coming of Jesus. A revised liberal group, viewed man as being able to present a kingdom for Jesus to come back and reign over. This did not occur and the amillennialism view rose over the post-millennialism view once again. In the early 1800’s millennial views took preference and this view is now most accepted.
Discussing the resurrection of the Second Coming.
Presented are two types of resurrections through God’s plan, the first resurrection gives eternal life and the last resurrection is the eternal fire. The resurrection to life is for those who have a saving relationship with God, no matter which dispensation that faith was manifested in. Those resurrected unto life are given transformed bodies prepared for eternity.
The last resurrection, the resurrection to the lake of fire, is for all who have not manifested faith in God, again regardless of what dispensation they lived in. This is also a
resurrection to an eternal existence, but it is for an eternity of separation from God. This is sometime called the second resurrection, but should not be due to the judgments during the tribulation period.
The timing of the resurrection they lived in. This is also a resurrection to an eternal existence, but it is for eternity of separation from God. This is sometimes called the second resurrection, but should not be due to the judgments during the tribulation period.
The timing of the resurrections is not as clear-cut as the fact of their existence. Generally it can be stated that the first resurrection occurs prior to the Tribulation for the church, while the last resurrection must wait one thousand years until the end of the millennium, the final rebellion of Satan, and just before the Great White Throne Judgment. The Old Testament saints therefore are the real second resurrection. This order began with Jesus Christ three days after his crucifixion. Jesus is called the “first fruits.” The second group in the order appears to be those who are Christ’s, in other words saints. This second group of the first resurrection is apparently broken into at least two separate resurrection events.
1.The first being the rapture. All church-age believers are caught up to meet Christ in
air. The dead are resurrected; their bodies are brought from the grave and united with
their spirits. Living believers will be translated, given their resurrection bodies without having to pass through death first.
2. The second comes at the end of the Tribulation. At that time, all of those who were
saved during the Tribulation and died prior to the Second Advent will be resurrected. Those who are saved during the Tribulation but still living at the advent will be taken alive to the Kingdom.
A major view in the subject of the resurrection is the time of being raised for Israel. This view holds that the rapture will include the Old Testament saints. This view
presents several segments. One segment being the fact that Jesus’ blood saved Israel just as it does present-age saints. The Tribulation is the final result of the history of Israel; it makes sense that the resurrection of the Jews will take place at the end of that time, which included the Old Testament saints. This would put their resurrection at the same time as or very close to the time of the resurrection of the Tribulation-age saints. The last view presented is resurrection will occur at the end of the millennium. Satan will be set free to initiate one final rebellion against God. God wins this last battle. Those who took part will be joined by all of the lost all ages who have been resurrected for the purpose of final judgment and receive and eternal lake of fire.
Discussing the judgments of the gentiles.
The judgment of the Gentiles along with the judgment of Israel will occur at the Second Coming. Israel has been gathered to its Messiah from all of the corners of the earth. The judgment of the Gentiles had been variously called the judgment of the nations and the sheep and goat judgment. It must precede the beginning of the millennial kingdom because those judged to the righteous in this judgment will enter into the kingdom as followers of Jesus. The place of this judgment is declared by Scripture to be the “valley of Jehoshaphat”. This valley is a matter of some confusion and debate another view places it in the location called the “valley of Berachah.” This could be called the valley of Jehoshaphat since this is where Jehoshaphat defeated the Ammonites and Moabites. Others see the valley of Kidron west of Jerusalem as the site of this judgment. There is a tradition giving this valley the name of the valley of Jehoshaphat, however, that name was not given to the valley until the fourth century.
Presented in the Book of Revelation and in Zechariah, the returning Messiah descends on the Mount of Olives and a valley is opened toward the east and the west (Zech 14. 4). In Greek the name Jehoshaphat means “Jehovah judges.” Expository would then refer to the activity which will occur in the valley rather than any name.
The judgment of the gentiles is sometimes called the judgment of the nations. The word translated ‘nations’ is the word ‘ethnos’. Ethnos is used to expound the words people, nation, gentile, and heathen. One must investigate what the Scripture says, what the Scripture means, and certainly how the word gentile applied at the time written.
The gentile nations will be gathered in national units before Christ and He will judge each as a separate group. This does not fit with any sensible expounding of the word. The main idea therefore is the believing gentiles, dead or alive, who have survived in the Tribulation. It becomes evident that these are the brethren who are persecuted specifically for their preaching of the gospel. This is made plain in the Book of Revelation. The gentiles will be judged for their treatment of Israel during the Tribulation period. For a Gentile to treat any Jewish person with kindness, during the Tribulation, will place his life in jeopardy. Therefore, this is no a judgment of works, but of genuine faith which produced such selfless works.
One may discern the word by understanding that works is faith, nothing more nothing less. Those who lack saving faith and demonstrate that lack by not doing good works will be sent to the lake of fire. Those, whose good deeds prove the presence of saving faith, will enter the millennium. Both the Jews and Gentiles surviving the judgments of the Second Advent will enter the millennium as parents of the first millennial babies. Literally speaking faith without works is dead faith. Comparing in today’s faith, eternal salvation by grace, is much easier to enter the gates of heaven compared to the time of tribulation. How many today would give their life for a statement of faith that would result in death?
When works enter into judgment in Scripture for the believer, it is for judging degrees of reward. This judgment does not deal with degree of rewards; it is only one reward, life in the millennium. Everyone of this judgment enters the kingdom or faces the final judgment later. The Tribulation non-believers will be judged with all the other non-believers at the end of the millennium. This judgment is plain; those who are cast into the fire will be judged for punishment with all of the non-believers. This is one final promise of judgment that this writer believes will be fulfilled by Christ while the saints (church) will assist in. The make plain the church will have many crowns and there judgment will be based on those crowns only.
Discussing the Old Testament view of the kingdom.
The Old Testament views of the kingdom meshes perfectly with the New Testament. In relation to its character, there are passages which seem to expound other passages in describing God’s eternal kingdom. Many passages point to a time of beginning and ending for the kingdom. Ezekial chapters 40-46 present Revelation chapter 4. These passages spell out a universal kingdom which is reined over by the sovereign power of God. It is described in very vivid detail in Ezekiel as to the temple without the veil. The Scriptures say that God exercises absolute authority in His Kingdom, and the mom’s and dad’s of the tribulation live with Christ. The Israelites have their second chance as God’s beloved and chosen people.
God finalized His rule that proves theology. God’s theocratic kingdom was manifested among men throughout Old Testament history. God proved His sovereignty as He made men and ruled in Eden. God proved His power through the flood. God’s righteousness was presented through God’s judgment and request of repentance was through His prophets. One of the major messages of these prophets was the coming king, the Messiah. The prophets also detailed the characteristics and effects that would be seen in the time of the kingdom. Their expectation was that the Kingdom would come with a conquering New Testament prophet. John the Baptist presented Jesus as King, Prophet, and Priest.
Discussing the kingdom program for the New Testament.
The 400 years of silence from the prophets allowed the Jews of Jesus day to expect the coming of the kingdom in their expectation of their Messiah. Jesus came offering that kingdom to the Jews. There was much evidence available to the people that Jesus was the expected king. He was preceded by a forerunner as Malachi had prophesied, John the Baptist, the kingdom presented in the preaching of Jesus. The preaching and message of Christ were confirmed through signs and miracles, but most of all through His death.
Jesus said that His kingdom fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies. The acceptance or rejection of the kingdom rested in the acceptance or rejection of Christ. He was, in a very real sense, the kingdom come in a person, full man, full God. The coming of the kingdom was conditional on the acceptance of Jesus. It was rejection of Him that God worked out His eternal plan for redemption of mankind. The rejection of Jesus was the appointed means by which God accomplished our redemption. Jesus is our substitute.
The Jews rejected the offer and Jesus simply withdrew His kingdom offer. His very life, teaching, parables, and finally His death prove that promise of a new kingdom. There was a new emphasis on the time and events in the period during which the king would be separated from his people. Jesus said that before Abraham was He was, John in the Book of John said the Word was made flesh, John in the Book of Revelation said there is a coming a new kingdom.
Spreading the gospel is presently establishing His kingdom. His kingdom process is still in the works. His plan has never excluded Israel. Many of the Jewish people are still blinded to the truth, but God has promised His remnant would be saved.
God changed his plans when he was rejected by the Jews. This now becomes the church age. Gentiles are pictured by Paul as having been grafted onto the branch from which the Jews were pruned following their rejection of their king. The Rapture will end the church period. At that time, God will once again renew His promise to Israel, fulfilling the covenants of the Old Testament. At the end of the present time it will not be rejected. The offer will be made through the preaching of the remnant during the tribulation period.
At the Second Coming after the Jews have accepted the kingdom offer, the kingdom will be instituted. This kingdom is made up of the believing people during the Tribulation. His perfect kingdom will be established in the earth. The harmony between God and nature will be restored; the curse on the earth as a result of the fall will be removed. The kingdom will provide a test for men, as to their response to God under His presence. Many will turn away from Jesus when given a chance to rebel against him at the end of the millennium. The kingdom rule will allow Christ to fully manifest His glory as the prophets in the Bible predicted.
Discussing the ruling agenda of the l000 year reign.
Speaking plainly, this is the new government that is governed by God. The Bible plainly presents the Messiah as the King of this period. This fulfills the prophecy of the Old Testament and the promise of the return of Jesus in the New Testament. The right of Jesus to fulfill this role is covered in Scripture. In the New Testament, there are genealogies that follow different lines, but both trace the lineage through David. These two genealogies are the lineage of Joseph and the other is the lineage of Mary.
Throughout those days it was noted that a man could be considered to be the son of his father-in-law. God planned this lineage so that Jesus would be a descendent of David through Joseph by adoption and biologically through Mary. This allows God the father to present Jesus full man and full God.
The Bible presents that the resurrected saints will have positions of authority and reign during this kingdom period. The Bible goes on to state that there will be nobles, governors, judges, and other authorities who will also reign under Jesus Christ.
All segments of government will reign under the plan and program of Christ whose government is universal and totally glorified. Textual studies say that the reign will be of justice and righteousness. Judgments will be exercised with the omniscient of Christ and thus injustice in government will simply not be. All outbreaks of sin and rebellion will be dealt with immediately. All temptation of evil will be removed so sinless behavior will be only possible with the rebellion of God’s authority.
The believing Jews and believing gentiles from the Tribulation will be the parents of the followers of Jesus during this 1000-year period. These chosen will live in a restored Jerusalem and Palestine. Their nation and capital will be the center of world politics during the kingdom period. Their land will be the centers of the world’s worship were Christ establishes His temple. This is the fourth Temple. The land will be most fertile and productive. The Jews will be the special remnant of the chosen people.
Still yet there will be many similar authorities to rule. There is a parable in Luke that indicates authority will be appointed over ten cities and five cities in the kingdom. These positions are appointed as rewards for faithfulness.
The prophets Isaiah tells us there will be judges as at the beginning. Scripture also tells us there will be governors. The New Testament in the Book of Matthew explains there will be twelve thrones representing the twelve tribes of Israel. This will be a unified government; no longer will Israel and Judah be divided. Hosea 1.11 tells, “Then shall the children of Judah and the children of Israel be gathered together, and appoint themselves one head.”
Let it be noted that the Holy Spirit will also be present in the millennial kingdom. Isaiah tells us the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, giving wisdom and understanding, and make him quick to understand the fear of the Lord.
In 1 Corinthians 15.24-28, the Apostle states that ultimate purpose of the theocratic kingdom, “That God may be all in all.” This establishes and brings back the theocratic kingdom “prepared….before the foundation of the world” as stated in Matthew 25. God original purpose was to manifest His authority.
Jesus, at the end of these 1000 years will cast the devil and his followers into the eternal lake of fire. While Christ’s earthly theocratic rule is limited to 1000 years, God
God’s perfect theocracy will be eternal. Christ will unite this earthly theocratic rule with
the eternal kingdom.
Discussing the purging for the Eternal Kingdom.
Throughout all of the theology classes taken and the textual studies the writer has learned one important thing concerning the subject of purging. One prophet was purified by the angel touching fire to his tongue, and then he could talk with God.
Not only must temptation be removed, but also all effects and results of sin. This purging or purifying process is represented by several parts during the millennium. The release of satan form the pit at the end of the millennium to raise a rebellion which will expose all of God’s enemies still living in the world even after the 1000 years; the purging of the earth through fire; the judging of the unbelievers of all ages at the end of the millennium. All of which occurs while Christ is on earth.
The devil and his angels are chained for the 1000 years. All temptations and evil power will be removed during this 1000 years period. The devil still hates God and wants to be god during this time. Many living during the 1000 years are living in a system rather than total love for Christ. When satan is released these men do not continue loyalty to Christ, they are persuaded by evil to rebel against Christ and once again sin is present. This is still not enough to accomplish satan the title of god.
God simply defeats every move the devil makes. The devil and His demons are cast into the lake of fire to eternity. The universe will once and for all the purged of all evil, and the saved will have eternal glorified, purified, and spiritual existence. The millennium kingdom is a time of fleshly and spiritual growth. The devil that has caused men to hate men is removed. Christ actually starts the process to sanctification during this time. The old heaven and the old earth will be destroyed with fire and God will create in their place a new heaven and a new earth. This earth will not have been contaminated with sin since satan was bound in chains at its beginning. This writer notes that the Bible references purgation by fire at the time the earth is to have every curse removed from it.
Scripture gives us two versions of “the day of the Lord.” Peter expresses great dissolution and that it comes as a thief in the night, and great noise and elements shall melt with fervent heat. John on the other hand speaks that the earth and heaven fled away. This would indicate that there was no dissolution. There is no contradiction here, just two different explanations of a time that would take place. The four gospels are to be understood in this same manner.
The purging at the end of the millennial period is an act of God. All rebellion and revolt against His authority on the earth is judged and because of God’s final judgment, all will be cast into the lake of fire.
Discussing the new heaven and the new earth and the New Jerusalem.
No one knows what the new heaven and new earth will look like after the purging by God. Jesus has gone to prepare a place for believers. The fourth temple will be built and Jesus prepares a place for believers. The fourth temple will be built during the 1000 years period. The New Jerusalem is explained in detail in our Bible. The exposition of the Scripture must be understood before the picture Jesus left us can be understood.
The first thing Christians must understand is that Christians and the church are awaiting Jesus Christ their Savior. “And if I go to prepare a place for you,” He promised, “I will come again and receive you unto myself that where I am, there ye may be also. In my Father’s house are many mansions.” Jesus is preparing a place where He and His bride will spend eternity together. That place is the New Jerusalem. A Christian has the Holy Spirit for guidance and no reason for arguing the Scripture should be necessary.
Pentecost holds to a view that the church is taken to New Jerusalem immediately following the rapture. These church saints will go to the heavenly city which will descend from heaven following the Second Advent. Resurrected Tribulation saints and the redeemed of Israel will join the church in the eternal city. From the city, believers will reign with Christ during the 1000 years reign.
Pentecost believes that travel from the city to the earthly kingdom below will occur. At the end of the millennium, millennial-age saints will join the saved of all previous times, the unfallen angels, and the Trinity in the New Jerusalem for eternity. During the destruction of the old heaven and the old earth, believers will be kept safe in the New Jerusalem. The Bible explains how believers will exist for eternity, praising God and living effortlessly from the fruit and water thereof.
Sin will not be possible or available. Believers will be part of the righteousness of Christ. The glory of God will be evident and peace, and love will only exist. Chapter 22 of the Book of Revelation explains in detail the throne of God an how the Lamb shall dwell therein; how servants shall serve Him; they shall see His face; His name shall be on the foreheads; they shall reign unto the ages of the ages. This description of ages of the ages does explain forever, eternal, with no end. This could not be explaining the millennium which will have an end after 1000 years.
Scripture tells of a visible temple which will be in the new earth period. Scripture gives a very detailed description of this temple and that it will have no veil, and that Christ will sit on the throne of this temple. Throughout the Bible, Scripture shows there to be a Temple associated with Jerusalem. John’s statement that he ‘saw no temple in the city,’ could mean that the entire city is the temple. Scripture does give the shape of the city to the cubical. John states plainly that God and the Lamb is the Temple. John dramatically announces that the temple is open and its contents laid for the eye to see.
The Book of Revelation gives much detail of the Rapture, Tribulation, and all the judgments, New Heaven, New Earth, Millennial Kingdom, and the New Jerusalem. In Matthew 13.14 Jesus tells of a prophecy of Isaiah, “And in them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled, which says: ‘Hearing you will hear and shall not understand, and seeing you will see and not perceive; for the heart of this people has grown dull. Their ears are hard of hearing, and their eyes they have closed, lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, Lest they should understand will their heart turn, So that I should heal them,’”
When man closes his heart and mind to the understanding of Revelation as to Rapture, Tribulation, Millennium, and the New Jerusalem; how can man be expected to understand Revelation 22.12,13; “And behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to give to every one according to his work. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last.”
For those who still seek some evidence of an eternal life with Christ I present to you there are widows of such evidence, although the Scripture does not give details of the life in the eternal Kingdom of God. The evidence comes through windows presented in the Scripture. I would like to conclude this writing by giving you eight windows of evidence to think about as you live your life out. “A life of fellowship with Him” I Cor 13.12), A life of rest Rev 14.13, A life of knowledge I Cor 13.12, A life of holiness Rev 21.27, A life of joy Rev 21.4, A life of service Rev 22.3, A life of abundance Rev 21.6, A life of glory Col 3.4.
This writer would like to challenge each and every one to take the time and do a study on the five Christian Crowns. Many Christians have in the past, and will in the future die and go to heaven without most of their Christian Crowns. Let those hear today this teaching remembering these are the crowns you will be able to lay down before Christ. You may find the Christian Crowns listed in front or in the back of a good study bible.
J. Dwight Pentecost Things To Come , Zondervan
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Felinberg, Paul E. The Rapture: pre-Mid-, or Post-tribulation? Grand Rapids: Academic Books, 1984.
The Holy Bible. The Open Bible New King James, Nelson Publishers, 1985.
Lindsell, Harold. The Gathering Storm: World Events and the Return of Christ.
Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House, 1980.
Ryrie, Charles C. Basic Theology. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1986.
Ryrie, Charles C. What You Should Know About The Rapture.
Chicago: Moody, 1981.
Walvoord, John F. The Rapture Question. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1979.
Wood, Leon J. The Bible & Future Events. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1973.